Item 2 – Activity

The Four Types of Web Credibility Example

Presumed

An example of Presumed as web credibility is when a website is perceived as credible because it represents an organisation that they deem trustworthy. Red Cross is one such site as it is for charity many people believe the website is reliable.

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Reputed

Reputed credibility is when a website is used because it is recommended by someone you find trustworthy. The best example of this is celebrity endorsements. Wild Turkey is endorsed by Matthew McConaghy making their website Reputed credibility.

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Surface

A website that I think of first in regards to Surface credibility is Apple. The page is professionally designed. It looks incredible, and the aesthetic create assumed credibility.

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Earned

Amazon has Earned credibility. It is often used because of other peoples positive experiences which not only brings their customers back but also brings in new consumers.

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Item 1 – Question 3 Critical Reading and Writing

The anticipated effect for the future of web credibility

Foggs (2003) study on web credibility from 1999 compare to 2002 shows how users perception has changed (154). When looking at the effect, the future of web credibility beyond 2018 (at the time of this post) depends on the growth of technology. With the rapid growth of technology and the advance in fake sites, it is essential that in the future we find ways to stop it. However, this could lead to a world where internet safety is paid for.

I have created a list of effects for the future of web credibility that I believe may happen.

  • Encrypted Passwords for everyday use
  • A list of credible sources listed or Footnotes (references)
  • Popup ads before site access unless you pay for ad-free internet
  • Validation approval showed on site
  • Insurance for online shopping
  • Software for fake website protection

 

Reference

Fogg, B. J. (2003). Credibility and the World Wide Web. In Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do (pp. 147-181). Amsterdam: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers

Figure 1: [Image of World Wide Web] Retrieved from https://www.justdial.com/Nellore/World-Wide-Web-Umma-Reddy-gunta-Bhaktavatsalanagar/9999PX861-X861-170808132712-L5X3_BZDET/photos

 

Item 1 – Question 2 Critical Reading and Writing

Wikipedia is described as a free encyclopedia. The encyclopedia, such as The Encyclopedia Britannica, is known to be a reliable source. However, Wikipedia is not a credible or reliable source. It runs as an open source of information that any person can edit and add information too without being fact-checked. Wikipedia does not fall under any of Fogg’s (2003) Four Types of Web Credibility: Presumed, Reputed, Surface and Earned (pp. 163). Some of the most prominent examples of mistakes that have appeared on Wikipedia are celebrity deaths, in particular, Miley Cyrus. In 2008 it caused a massive shock to her fans before it was debunked (“25 Biggest Blunders in Wikipedia” c.d.).

Wolchover (2011), argues that Wikipedia is a credible source but because anyone can edit the site with the wrong information can undermine the site. She states that “[i]n 2005, the peer-reviewed journal Nature asked scientists to compare Wikipedia’s scientific articles to those in Encyclopaedia Britannica—”the most scholarly of encyclopedias,” according to its own Wiki page. The comparison resulted in a tie; both references contained four serious errors among the 42 articles analysed by experts.”

However, when looking at credible sources for academic writing, it is essential to know who the author is and what credentials they hold to make them qualified to speak on the topic. Many authors on Wikipedia are experts in their field. However, many are not and use information that may not be backed up by evidence.

 

Reference

25 Biggest Blunders in Wikipedia. Retrieved from https://www.bestcollegesonline.com/blog/25-biggest-blunders-in-wikipedia-history/

Figure 1: David Friedland. Silver Ball. [Image] Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Wikipedia_logos

Fogg, B. J. (2003). Credibility and the World Wide Web. In Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do (pp. 147-181). Amsterdam: Morgan Kaufman Publishers.

Wolchover, N. (2011). How Accurate Is Wikipedia? Retrieved from https://www.livescience.com/32950-how-accurate-is-wikipedia.html

 

Item 1 – Question 1 Critical Reading and Writing

Credibility

Fogg’s (2003) research into Credibility on the World Wide Web discusses ways in which we perceive if a website is credible or not. He explains that we do this by using the two dimensions of credibility: trustworthiness plus expertise equals credibility (pp. 123). If a website looks trustworthy, such as contact details and looks professionally designed. As well as have a level of expertise, such as the author’s list of credentials and references (Fogg. 2003, pp. 160).

Geddes (2016) states that “[m]ost users are hard-wired to avoid placing themselves in perilous situations.” This is true when online shopping. If a website doesn’t look trustworthy (even if it is a legit online shop), consumers will be less likely to buy from them. They will most likely find a store that looks the part.

Fogg (2003) goes on to discuss The Four Types of Web Credibilities: Presumed – a domain name that ends in .org: Reputed – a site that won an award: Surface – professionally designed website, and Earned – a website that is regularly updated (163). Harley (2016) agrees with Fogg, stating that “[o]n the web, like in real life, people appreciate when sites are upfront with all information that relates to the customer experience.”

 

Reference

Figure 1: [Image Dog dressed as Doctor Who] Retrieved from https://teecraze.com/trust-im-dogtor-t-shirt/

Fogg, B. J. (2003). Credibility and the World Wide Web. In Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What we think and do (pp. 122-125). Amsterdam: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

Fogg, B. J. (2003). Credibility and the World Wide Web. In Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What we think and do (pp. 147-181). Amsterdam: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

Geddes, J. (2016). Trust – Building the Bridge to Our Users. Retrieved from https://www.interaction-design.org/literature/article/trust-building-the-bridge-to-our-users

Harley, A. (2016). Trustworthiness in Web Design: 4 Credibility Factors. Retrieved from https://www.nngroup.com/articles/trustworthy-design/

 

Item 2 – Activity

Performance Load Examples

Keyless Start

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Figure 2: Photograph Keyless Start

Keyless start is becoming more common in most vehicles. Users can keep their keys in their pockets or bags to start their cars. It takes less Cognitive energy, especially when searching for your keys in a hurry. It also creates less Kinematic energy as you only need to press a button to start the vehicle.

GPS

gps-navigation-concept-creative-abstract-satellite-travel-tourism-location-route-planning-business-macro-view-modern-black-48920035Figure 3: Photograph GPS

GPS is a product designed to lower the user’s Performance Load. Before GPS’s users had to look through heavy books and use cognitive load to map out how to get to a place. Now the user can simply type in the address (or even speak the commands in some cases) and the best route will appear. It speaks the commands out to the user, which allows them to spend less time and kinematic energy on stopping to check where to go next.

Thermomix

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Figure 4: Image Thermomix

A Thermomix is an example of Performance load in design. It creates less cognitive loads by using a chip that holds the recipes onto the machine. The user can just press a button to move onto the next section of the method. This saves mental activity by lessening the need for memory and problem-solving energy. It also saves on kinematic loads. The machine: cuts, blends, chops, steams, stirs, measures, cooks, and grinds your food. It takes away the physical energy needed to prepare and cook food.

Reference 

Figure 1: [Photograph PayPass] Retrieved from http://jhorosho.ru/ser-ezno/po-delu/sberbank-rasshiril-linejku-bankovskih-kart-s-beskontaktny-mi-tehnologiyami-oplaty-pokupok-mastercard-paypass-i-visa-paywave/

Figure 2: [Photograph Keyless Start] Retrieved from https://www.digitaltrends.com/cars/dozens-of-deaths-linked-to-keyless-ignition-from-engines-being-left-on/

Figure 3: [Photograph GPS] Retrieved from https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-illustration-gps-navigation-concept-creative-abstract-satellite-travel-tourism-location-route-planning-business-macro-view-modern-black-image48920035

Figure 4: [Image Thermomix] Retrieved from https://benelux.thermomix.com/en/thermomix/

Item 1 – Question 3 Critical Reading and Writing

Psychology and Design

The study of psychology is essential in the use of design. Humans are visual learners. For designers, it is vital that they know how our minds work so they can do the best job of catching and holding our attention.

Without Miller’s (1956) study of the Mythical Number Seven, designers would not be able to create web designs and layouts that are user-friendly. Psychology of colour is also another way in which designers use our emotional reaction to colour in the way they sell their products.

By using psychology in design, designers can create products that are aimed at their target audiences, from sign advertising, television ads, websites to physical products. Without knowing how to target their audiences as well as not knowing what or how consumers will react too could put the companies at risk and this is why they use psychology studies that are backed up by evidence.

Reference

Figure 1: [Image of Psychology of Colour logos] Retrieved from http://www.gostudiorama.com/logo-design-color/color-psychology-in-logo-design-visual-ly-complete-8/

Miller, G. A. (1956). The magical number seven plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63(2), 81-97.

Item 1 – Question 2 Critical Reading and Writing

Chunking Technique

“In the field of cognitive psychology, a chunk is an organizational unit in memory” (Meyer, 2016). By breaking up multimedia and information in design into ‘chunks’, our brains retain information better. The term ‘chunking’ was first used by psychologist George A miller in his theory ‘Magical Number Seven.’

Miller’s (1956) The Magical number seven plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for processing information, talks about the theory that humans short-term memory can remember information in chunks of seven (plus or minus two), such as seven digits or seven letters. Once it got higher, the brain had more trouble remembering the information, and as a result, more errors occurred. An example of chunking is the digits on a credit card. They are set out in 4 number chunks. The same happens with phone numbers. They use the chunk system to help break down the more digits. This creates an easy way for the brain to remember long numbers.

Designers can create a design that users find easy to remember and navigate by creating smaller paragraphs of information or turning them into dot points as well as keeping the information simple.

They can group similar chunks of items or information together, such as shopping items like laptops or pasta, on an online retail website. It will make it a better experience for the customer.

Lastly, by following Millers (1956) ‘Magical Number Seven‘ rule, designers will tap into their customer’s short-term memory, making it a better experience as well as helping to lessen the number of errors that can occur.

 

Reference

Figure 1: [Photograph of a Gold Visa card] Retrieved from http://www.elmogaz.com/node/43696

Meyer, K. (2016). How Chunking Helps Content Processing. Retrieved from https://www.nngroup.com/articles/chunking/

Miller, G. A. (1956). The magical number seven plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63(2), 81-97.

 

Item 1 – Question 1 Critical Reading and Writing

Performance load

Lidwell, Holden and Butler (2003) discuss the use of Performace load as a design principle, consisting of two main types: cognitive, the amount of mental energy needed and kinematic, the amount of physical energy required. The more physical and mental energy used the more likely the tasks will end in frustration and error (148). If a person thinks it will require considerable effort, they may just reject it beforehand (Galitz, 2007 pp. 85).

The argument is that designers need to find a way to minimise the best possible way to use less energy both cognitively and kinematically. By doing this along with chunking information and providing memory aids, users will find the design user-friendly and as a result, will have less frustration along with a more positive experience (Lidwell et al. 2003, pp. 148).

However, Nikolov (2018) asks the question, “should we always design to reduce performance load?” By creating a simplified and easy interaction may ease frustration but it can also cause a user to become bored. Yet, Barzilay (2015)  argues that without reducing the performance load on websites that most users will leave a site out of frustration if it does not load within a few seconds.

As a result, without the use of context applied to each situation designers should apply the Performance Load principle.

 

Reference

Barzilay, M. (2015). Performance, Load and Stress Testing. Retrieved from https://www.spritecloud.com/2015/02/performance-load-and-stress-testing/

Figure 1: [Photograph Car Speed Gadge] Retrieved from https://www.doctordisruption.com/design/principles-of-design-36-performance-load/

Galitz, W. O. (2007). The Essential Guide to User Interface Design: An Introduction to Guidesign Principles and Techniques. Hoboken, UNITED STATES: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated.

Lidwell, W. Holden, K,m & Butler, J. (2003). Performance Load. In Universal Principles of Design (pp. 148-149). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Nikolov, A. (2018). Designing with Performance load in mind. Retrieved from https://uxdesign.cc/designing-performance-load-a5ff8e3159d5

 

Item 1 – Question 2 Examples & Item 2 – Activity

Examples of Consistency

The four main principles of consistency can be found throughout different products and designs.

 

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Figure 1: Amber Case Image Shell logo over time

The consistency of Shell’s logo for over 100 years has made the shell an iconic symbol. It falls under Lidwells, Holden, & Butler’s (2003) one of the four principals of consistency, Aesthetic Consistency. The slight variations show that the company changed with the times without losing the consumers way of identifying them as consistency “ensures that users always find the same message over and over again, however they access a brand” (Soegaard, 2008).  By using this design principle Shell has ensured that their customers will recognise them and associate their logo with quality and loyalty.

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Figure 2: Photograph of Apple products

Apple is known for their use of consistency. Their logo has changed colour over time. However, the shape has become a universal symbol that represents the company. Yet it is their consistency of the software design used throughout all of their products that show the best way consistency can be used in a design. It falls under Lidwell, Holden & Butler’s (2003) one of the four principals of consistency, Internal Consistency. All Apple devices link to each other. You can jump from your phone to your laptop to your Apple watch and pick up where you left off. The aesthetic and straightforward designs allow the consumer to quickly learn on new products thanks to the design principle, Consistency.

 

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Figure 3: Image Play Symbol

The simple symbol of a sideways triangle is the universal symbol for play. It falls under Lidwell, Holden & Butler’s (2003) one of the four principals of consistency, Functional Consistency.  It begins with the video cassette recorder and is now used among several technologies, such as videos, DVDs, and music (Lidwell et a; 2003 pp. 46). Without the use of Functional consistency, navigating technologies would be less user-friendly. It has given users a sense of familiarity and can enable them to feel more confident in using different technologies.

Reference

Figure 1: Amber Case [Image Shell logo over time] Retrieved from https://www.interaction-design.org/literature/article/consistency-more-than-what-you-think

Figure 2: [Photograph of Apple products] Retrieved from http://thyblackman.com/2017/11/11/four-apple-products-that-disappointed-apple-fans-second-one-is-totally-unpredicted/

Figure 3: [Image Play Symbol] Retrieved from https://www.onlinewebfonts.com/icon/404212

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Aesthetic-Usability Effect. In Universal Principles of Design. (pp. 46). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Soegaard, M. (2018). Consistency: MORE than what you think. Retrieved from https://www.interaction-design.org/literature/article/consistency-more-than-what-you-think

Item 1 – Question 1 Critical Reading and Writing

Consistency

Lidwell, Holden, & Butler (2003, pp. 46) discuss the principles of consistency. They state the four main kinds of consistency: aesthetic, style and appearance: functional, meaning and action: Internal, other elements in a system: External, elements in the environment. They argue that designers should use, “aesthetic and functional consistency in all aspects of designs… to establish unique identities that can be easily recognized,” (Lidwell et al. 2003, pp. 43), and “to simplify usability and ease of learning” (Lidwell et al. 2003, pp. 43). Galitz also agrees that “[c]onsistency aids learning” (2007, pp. 45). By using consistency, consumers will pick up on familiar designs making it easier for them to use.

However, to achieve consistency in design, you first need to have standards and guidelines (Galitz, 2007, pp. 49). These consist of such “areas as element location; grammar; font shape, styles, and sizes; selection indicators; and contrast and emphasis techniques” (Galitz, 2007, pp. 49).

Allen (2012), argues that designers use the consistency principle at times when they should be using a slight variation in the design. He also claims that while it is a great design principle, it is not one that should be used all the time and that designers should let it take a back seat to other principals. However, Soegard (2018) argues that consistency creates trust and in the current times, designers “should strive for total consistency.” Both Allen and Soegard make excellent arguments. Depending on how the designer is using the design principle, consistency can instil trust and reliability within a brand. It will create easy navigation platforms for customers as well as making it easier for the customer to find the products and brands they are familiar and comfortable with. This can also be achieved by keeping logos and brand colours consistent, such as the Coca-Cola logo.

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Figure 2: Image: Coca-Cola Logo

The font is consistent through all of their products. It is this type of consistency that makes it a great design principle.

 

Reference

Allen, J. (2012). Why is consistency important in design. Retrieved from https://www.quora.com/Why-is-consistency-important-in-design

Figure 1: [Image: Four Different Coca-Cola Cans] Retrieved from http://www.posta.com.mx/negocios/coca-cola-retirara-dos-de-sus-productos-en-mexico

Figure 2: [Image: Coca-Cola Logo] Retrieved from http://www.moreto.net/novini.php?n=370366

Galitz, W. O. (2007). The Essential Guide to User Interface Design: An Introduction to Guidesign Principles and Techniques. Hoboken, UNITED STATES: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated.

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Aesthetic-Usability Effect. In Universal Principles of design (pp. 46). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Soegaard, M. (2018). Consistency: MORE than what you think. Retrieved from https://www.interaction-design.org/literature/article/consistency-more-than-what-you-think